Professional Indeminity Insurance

Professional Indeminity Insurance

What is Professional Indemnity Insurance?

Professional indemnity insurance protects an organisation or professional against any liabilities and contingencies that can occur because of a mistake or negligence. It is specifically designed to safeguard consultants who charge a fee for their services. Basically, it provides financial protection against claims for financial loss, injury, or damage any violation of their professional responsibilities during their work.


Types of Professional Indemnity Insurance

Here are some types of professional indemnity insurance -

  1. Malpractice Insurance: This covers doctors, dentists, nurses, and other licensed healthcare providers. This might come in handy for experts whose mistakes can cause bodily harm or other problems like sickness, illness, mental injury or even death.
  2. Errors and Omissions Insurance (E&O): It is mainly for business professionals like lawyers, architects, etc. It protects them from financial losses including defence costs caused by negligence, errors, and oversight.
  3. Civil Liability Cover: Civil indemnity covers all risks not covered by standard insurance. Any claim related to defamation, contract breach, slander, libel, intellectual property, and any personal injury resulting from security breaches will be covered. Such coverage can provide financial protection from potentially expensive legal claims. It is important to note that civil liability coverage excludes employer and general public liability.

How Does A Professional Indemnity Insurance Policy Work?

A professional indemnity insurance policy operates by providing financial protection to professionals and businesses against claims made by their clients regarding the professional services or consultations rendered.

The professional indemnity insurance coverage follows a claims-made basis, meaning it indemnifies your professional liability for claims made during the policy period specifically related to negligence, errors, omissions, and similar occurrences.

Professional indemnity insurance excludes coverage for claims related to incidents occurring before its start. In rare cases, certain insurance plans may extend coverage for medical treatments administered before the policy commencement, though this is typically limited to very large practices.

Depending on the profession, professional liability insurance goes by different names, like medical malpractice insurance for doctors and errors & omissions insurance for real estate agents. Such names reflect the type of services that the professional provides and denote the kind of risks that they may face in their profession.

Professional indemnity insurance can't be obtained through homeowners' endorsements, home business policies, or business owners' policies. Consequently, it is important for consultants to research and purchase the right kind of professional liability insurance for their particular business.

You can only file claims within the policy period. In general, these policies work based on a claims-made basis, so only claims filed during the policy period are covered. Any claims made after that will not be honoured.

Professional liability insurance usually covers you against losses resulting from claims made during the policy period if you have made a covered error, omitted something, or acted negligently during the course of your professional business. This means that in case of a claim, you can have peace of mind knowing that you are protected from the potential financial repercussions of your professional work.

What Is A Doctor's Professional Indemnity Insurance?

A doctor's professional indemnity insurance plan is tailored for doctors, addressing the financial risks they face in their practice. This policy safeguards them from potential financial liabilities arising from situations such as providing incorrect medicine advice, misdiagnosis, mistreatment, and negligence while delivering their professional services.

If you, as a doctor, face a negligence lawsuit, this insurance plan covers defense costs, third-party damages, and all the legal expenses involved in defending yourself against the lawsuit.

Features Of Professional Indemnity Insurance

Here are some of the highlighting features of professional indemnity insurance -

  • Professional Negligence Coverage
    Professional Indemnity Insurance is designed to address claims that may arise from professional negligence, errors, or omissions in the performance of professional services. It provides coverage for instances such as mistakes, oversights, or breaches of duty that could lead to legal liabilities.

  • Legal Defence Support
    This type of policy generally encompasses expenses related to defending against a claim, such as legal fees, court costs, settlements, etc. This is crucial because legal costs can be significant, regardless of whether the professional is ultimately deemed liable or not.

  • Financial Safeguard
    Professional indemnity insurance offers protection against financial loss or damages experienced by clients due to professional errors or insufficient advice. This coverage may involve compensation for lost income, additional expenses, or the expenses incurred in rectifying the errors.

  • Personalised Coverage
    Insurance policies are commonly customised to align with the specific risks and needs prevalent in various professions. Professionals across diverse industries, including but not limited to doctors, lawyers, architects, engineers, consultants, etc., may seek tailored coverage that is strategically designed to meet their individual risks and unique requirements.

  • Claims-Made Structure
    Professional indemnity insurance is typically designed with a "claims-made" structure. This means it protects against claims made during the policy period, irrespective of when the incident in question occurred. This stands in contrast to occurrence-based policies, which cover events happening within the policy period, regardless of when a claim is filed.

  • Effective Retroactive Date
    Insurance policies may have a retroactive date, marking the starting point of coverage. Claims stemming from incidents before this designated date may not qualify for coverage.

  • Limits And Deductibles Of The Policy
    Similar to other insurance policies, professional indemnity insurance imposes limits that specify the maximum amount the insurer will pay for a covered claim. Additionally, deductibles may be applicable, necessitating you to contribute a specific amount before the insurance coverage becomes effective.


Why Have Professional Indemnity Insurance?

"I'll sue you for this" - No professional wants to hear these words from their clients. But what if it unfortunately becomes true?

When a professional deals with clients, there can be cases where they make a mistake or cause harm to the client. In such cases, the professional is exposed to being sued by the client for damages. Professional Indemnity covers professionals for this.

It'll protect you from huge legal bills in case someone files a claim against you. This is why having such a policy is important - it could save you from a financial disaster. Having such a policy in place is not only a smart move but also a cost-effective one, as it could eliminate the hassle of legal battles - allowing you to channel your full energy into the growth and success of your business.

It's specially designed for professionals and businesses whose services are at risk. It helps to protect their services and their reputation.

Eligibility Criteria For Professional Indemnity Insurance

Businesses engaging professional consultants and other professionals in client interactions should prioritise obtaining professional indemnity insurance. Here are some groups that can benefit from purchasing this policy -

  • Professionals in the health sector, architecture, and accounting fields.
  • Legal professionals such as lawyers, attorneys, solicitors, counsels, etc.
  • Organisational entities, including hospitals, medical institutions, legal firms, construction companies, auditing firms, etc.
  • Brokers, management consultants, engineers, IT professionals, etc.
  • Software and website developers.


What Does Professional Indemnity Insurance Cover?

You are covered for losses arising from legal liability if the claim is -

  • Because of any mistake/negligent act/oversight of the professional within the geographic region mentioned in the policy schedule;
  • Filed during the policy period and reported to the insurer in writing and the error occurs before the policy expires.

Please note that any claim or circumstance known to you before the commencement of this policy or that should have been known or informed by you under any other insurance prior to the policy inception or stated in the latest proposal to the company is not covered by this policy.


What Does Professional Indemnity Insurance Not Cover?

Unless otherwise specified, this policy won't cover the following -

  1. Damage to Property or Injuring Someone
    The policy will not cover personal injury or property damage unless the damage or injury is caused by a service you have provided for a fee.

  2. Delay
    Any claims arising out of a delay in performing any task that was agreed upon via a contract between the professional and the client, except when the delay is because of negligence. Actual or alleged late deliveries or delays shall not be considered negligent acts, errors, or omissions.

  3. Directors and Officers and Employment Liabilities
    The policy won’t cover any claims -
  • Against your director or officer in the course of their official duties.
  • Resulting from your obligations as an employer or potential employer to any employee, including disputes over wrongful dismissals, unfair dismissals, contracts of employment, training contracts, retainers, etc. 
  • Whether from an employee or someone else, about sexual harassment, racial harassment, molestation, discrimination or victimisation based on gender, race, disability, sexual orientation, religion, age, etc.
  1. Punitive Damages:
    Any claim resulting from - 
  • Fines, taxes, penalties, or other multiple compensatory damages; or 
  • Any other damages regarded as uninsurable by law, such as restitution, offset, or return of fees or expenses paid to you.
  1. Insured Vs Insured
    Any claims made by another insured against you.

  2. Intentional/Dishonest Acts
    Any intentional, dishonest, fraudulent or criminal act that results in a claim.

  3. Insolvency
    Any claim against you that is based on or attributable to your, your suppliers’, or your subcontractors’ insolvency.

  4. Intellectual Property Rights
    Any claim related to the infringement of any confidential information or intellectual property like copyright, trademark, etc.

  5. Warranty
    Any claim arising under any warranty or under any contractual obligation where the obligation results in a claim or loss that you would not have been liable for without the warranty or contract.

  6. Libel And Slander
    Libel (a false statement published that hurts someone's reputation; written defamation) or slander (making a false statement to hurt someone's reputation) or otherwise defamatory statements made by you or any other third parties including sub-contractors.

  7. Virus:
    Any claim resulting from  -
  • Computer viruses, worms, or similar damaging or malicious code, whether created or transmitted (directly or indirectly) by you, or 
  • Computer hacking, denial of service attacks, or other computer misuse that causes damage to you or anyone else.
  1. Loss of Document
    Any loss, damage, or destruction of documents, or expenses you incur while replacing or restoring them.

  2. Nuclear Pollution and War
    Any loss, injury, or damage directly or indirectly caused by -
  • Asbestos
  • Radiation, contamination from radioactivity, nuclear fuel, etc.
  • Toxic, explosive, or other hazardous properties of an explosive nuclear assembly.
  • Discharge, dispersal, release or escape of pollutants. 
  • War, acts of sabotage, civil disorder, etc.
  1. Terrorism
    Loss caused by terrorism. Here terrorism refers to an act, including force or violence and/or threats thereof, committed by someone or a group of people, whether acting alone or on behalf of a company or government, for political, religious, ideological or similar reasons, including the intention of influencing a government and/or putting the public, or any section of the public in fear.

    Also excluded are losses of any kind caused by or related to any act of terrorism. Please note that it is your responsibility to prove the contrary if the insurer claims any loss isn't covered by this insurance because of this exclusion.


Benefits Of Professional Indemnity Insurance

Here are some of the reasons why professional indemnity insurance is worth considering –

  • Financial Protection
    An essential advantage is the financial protection offered by professional indemnity insurance. It covers legal defense costs, settlements, and damages caused to clients in the case of a covered claim. This financial assistance is pivotal for professionals navigating potential litigation challenges.
  • Legal Defence ExpensesProfessional indemnity insurance addresses the legal expenses linked to defending against a claim, encompassing attorney fees, court costs, and additional charges. This is especially significant, given that legal defense costs can accumulate rapidly, irrespective of whether the professional is ultimately deemed liable or not.
  • Uninterrupted Business Operations
    In the event of a claim, professional indemnity insurance becomes a cornerstone for ensuring ongoing business operations. The financial assistance it offers empowers professionals to manage the repercussions of a claim, enabling them to sustain their activities without encountering severe financial challenges.
  • Proactive Risk Management
    Certain professional indemnity insurance policies include risk management services. Insurers may offer advice on optimal practices, conduct contract reviews, and suggest risk mitigation strategies to assist professionals in proactively preventing potential claims.
  • Tailored Coverage
    Professional indemnity insurance policies can be personalised to match the distinct needs and risks associated with various professions. This tailored approach guarantees that professionals receive coverage aligning with their specific circumstances and the unique characteristics of their work.
  • Safeguarding Personal Assets
    Professional indemnity insurance plays a critical role in safeguarding the personal assets of professionals. In the absence of such a policy, a professional's personal assets could be jeopardised if they are personally held responsible for a claim.  

Professional Indemnity Insurance Policy - Limit of Indemnity

The "Limit of Indemnity" in a professional indemnity insurance policy is the highest amount the insurance company will cover in case of a valid claim. It serves as the maximum financial limit on the insurer's responsibility for either a singular claim or a set of interrelated claims throughout the duration of the policy. This limit is a pivotal element of professional indemnity insurance, and its value is determined by the specific terms and conditions mutually agreed upon by you, the insured professional, and the insurance provider.

Here are some key aspects concerning the Limit of Indemnity -

  • The limit is established on a per-accident and per-policy-period basis, denoted as the Any One Accident (AOA) limit and Any One Year (AOY) limit, respectively.
  • The relationship between these limits, known as the AOA to AOY ratio, is adjustable and typically falls within the customizable range of 1:1 to 1:4.
  • The predetermined AOA limit establishes the maximum payout for a single accident, clearly defining the insurer's financial obligation in the event of a particular incident.
  • The table below outlines the ratio options for AOA limit to AOY limit, along with explanations and relevant examples for each -

Limit of Indemnity

Meaning and Example


Professional indemnity insurance extends coverage for a single claim within each policy year, capped at the total indemnity limit. For instance, if the indemnity limit is ₹10 crore, you are eligible to file only one claim, and the coverage is confined to the specified indemnity limit for that claim in a given policy year.


Professional indemnity insurance provides coverage for a maximum of two claims within a policy year, with each claim allocated half of the total indemnity limit. For instance, if the indemnity limit is ₹10 crore, you are limited to raising two claims annually, and the maximum claim amount for each individual claim cannot surpass ₹5 crores.


Professional indemnity insurance provides coverage for a maximum of three claims within a policy year, with each claim allocated one-third of the total indemnity limit. For example, if the indemnity limit is ₹10 crore, you are restricted to filing three claims throughout the policy duration, and the maximum amount for each claim is capped at ₹3.33 crores.


Professional indemnity insurance extends coverage for a maximum of four claims within a policy year, with each claim allocated one-fourth of the total indemnity limit. For instance, if the indemnity limit is ₹10 crore, you are limited to raising four claims throughout the policy tenure, and the maximum amount for each individual claim is capped at ₹2.5 crores.

  • It's important to emphasise that the AOA limit is established by taking into account factors like the nature of the activity, the potential impact on the number of people, and the potential property damage in the worst-case accident scenario.
  • Additionally, when evaluating coverage, it is crucial to examine whether the sum insured is adequate and whether the selected extensions provide the necessary level of protection.

Factors To Consider Before Choosing Professional Indemnity Insurance

Here are key considerations to bear in mind before acquiring professional indemnity insurance -

  • Type Of Professional Services
    The nature of the professional services you provide plays a crucial role. Diverse professions come with different risk levels, and the professional indemnity insurance insurance requirements can vary based on the specific type of the services offered.
  • Regulatory Compliance
    Certain industries or regulatory bodies may impose specific requirements related to professional indemnity insurance. It is essential to verify that your selected policy aligns with any compulsory regulations in your industry.
  • Scope Of Coverage
    Examine the professional indemnity insurance policy's coverage to confirm it adequately addresses the specific risks linked to your profession. Typical coverage entails protection against errors, omissions, professional negligence, and the costs associated with legal defense.
  • Coverage Limit
    Evaluate the professional indemnity insurance policy's coverage limits to guarantee that they are adequate for potential liabilities and legal expenses related to a claim. Take into account the potential financial impact of claims on your business.
  • Policy Limitations And Exclusions
    Meticulously go through and grasp the professional indemnity insurance policy's exclusions and limitations. Stay vigilant about any situations or types of claims that might not be covered. This knowledge is vital to prevent unexpected surprises in the event of a claim.
  • Premium
    When comparing premium costs among different insurers, it's crucial to strike a balance between cost and the extent of coverage. While affordability is a factor, opting for cheaper premiums without considering the professional indemnity insurance coverage provided may lead to inadequate protection.
  • Claim Settlement Process and History
    Examine the insurer's track record in claim settlement. The importance of a transparent and efficient claims process cannot be overstated. Conduct thorough research into the insurer's claims history and customer reviews to accurately assess their reliability in handling claims.
  • Retroactive Date
    Certain professional indemnity insurance policies have a retroactive date, signifying the initiation of coverage. It's crucial to comprehend the implications of this date and verify its alignment with your business history.
  • Renewal Terms Evaluation
    Review the professional indemnity insurance policy's renewal terms thoroughly, keeping an eye on possible adjustments in premiums or coverage. When making decisions, give priority to the enduring stability and predictability of premium increases over the long term.
  • Insurer's Credibility
    Opt for an insurer with a reliable history of offering professional indemnity insurance. Assess their financial stability and customer reviews to ensure their trustworthiness.
  • Customization Options
    Explore professional indemnity insurance policies that can be customised to suit the distinct requirements of your profession. Tailoring your coverage enables you to address the unique risks associated with your services.
  • Legal Support Assurance
    Assess whether the professional indemnity insurance policy provides legal assistance in case of a claim. It's crucial to have coverage for legal defense costs, given the potentially high expenses involved.

Companies Offering Professional Indemnity Insurance in India

Here are some of the companies that provide professional indemnity insurance in India -

  • United India Insurance
  • Bajaj Allianz
  • ICICI Lombard
  • Reliance General Insurance
  • Oriental Insurance
  • Future Generali
  • Iffco Tokio

Making A Claim!

Here are the steps you need to follow if you want to make a claim under a professional indemnity insurance policy -

  1. You need to first notify your insurer in writing immediately, so they can process it as quickly as possible. You should also inform them if you've received any legal notices.
  2. Next, fill out your claim form and send it to the insurance company with the right documents.

Here's what your insurance company needs:

  • A duly filled claim form
  • Copies of any communication like emails, letters, file notes, or any legal documents such as a writ.
  • Claimant and involved party details.
  • A detailed outline of the problem.
  • The potential value of the claim.
  • Registration certificate of the professionals.
  • Certificates for institutions like hospitals.
  • Details of the insured to determine the extent of the money loss.
  1. Once you have submitted the required paperwork, the insurance company will evaluate your case to determine if it is valid and respond accordingly.
  2. There's always the option of going to court if you're unhappy with the insurance company's decision.


How To Choose The Right Professional Indemnity Insurance?

Here are some of the things to remember before you select your ideal policy -

  1. Complete Coverage
    Your professional indemnity policy should provide adequate coverage for all the potential risks to your business and its activities, based on your specific services or work. Ensure it is tailored to your business - so you are fully protected from any unforeseen circumstances.

  2. Pick The Right Limit Of Liability
    Make sure your professional indemnity policy allows you to customise your limit of liability or sum insured based on your business size, nature and number of employees. This is important because if the limit of liability or sum insured is too low, it may not cover all the costs of a claim against you. On the other hand, if it is too high, you may be paying for coverage that you don't need. So, it's important to strike the right balance.

    To figure out the right quantum of liability for your profession, it’s advisable to talk to a financial advisor or insurance broker. You can always reach out to SMC experts to make the best decision!
  3. Easy Claims Process
    It's important to find a company with an easy claims process since it can save you and your business a lot of stress. An efficient claims system can provide you peace of mind, knowing that you can get assistance quickly, when needed.

  4. Extra Service Benefits
    Some insurance companies offer a variety of other benefits, like 24X7 customer service, user-friendly mobile apps, etc. These additional services can make it easier for you to have access to their insurance information when you need it most. Therefore, when selecting an insurance provider, carefully consider their offerings to find the one that best suits your needs.

  5. Compare Different Policies
    Saving money is always good, but the cheapest policy might not be the best choice. It's important to look at more than just the price tag when making a decision - consider the coverage and make sure you get the protection you need. Be sure to compare and weigh the features and premiums of each policy. Choose a policy that offers the most comprehensive protection and value for your money.


Who Needs A Professional Indemnity Policy?

Investing in a professional indemnity policy is a good choice if  -

  1. You are a professional.
  2. You charge a fee for your services.
  3. There is even a remote possibility your client can sue you or claim damages in court for negligence or a mistake.

Other Important Aspects of A Professional Indemnity Policy

Here are some of the key facets of a professional indemnity policy that you need to be aware of -

  1. Retroactive Dates
    Some insurance policies have a retroactive date clause. Basically, this is the time before the policy commences. Considering that the policy only covers financial losses incurred during the tenure, the retroactive clause gives you the opportunity to claim the sum insured for any mistakes that happened during the retroactive period. This provides a sense of security and assurance that any losses incurred before the policy even started will still be covered. Please note that you must request such a claim during the policy period.

  2. Tail Reporting
    Some insurance providers also have tail reporting clauses. With this clause, you get to make claims for incidents that occurred during the policy period but weren't notified until after the policy expired. So, this allows you to extend the coverage of your policy beyond its expiration date, ensuring that you remain protected even after the policy ends. This will only apply if the policy wasn't renewed for that period. But, this feature entails higher premiums, which are determined at the onset of the policy.

  3. Transferring Retroactive Dates From The Old Insurer To The New Insurer
    Here, the new insurer undertakes the responsibility of covering any claims that might arise from the old insurer’s policy tenure. The claim will be covered if there is no gap between the old coverage and new coverage.


  1. What is professional indemnity insurance?
    Professional indemnity insurance is an insurance policy designed to offer risk coverage to professionals for potential claims resulting from mistakes or errors in their work. If a third party experiences loss or damage to life or property due to the professional's negligent practices, this insurance policy provides coverage for the risks associated with such incidents.
  2. Is Professional indemnity insurance mandatory?
    While not obligatory, insurers often recommend professional indemnity insurance for professionals because of the comprehensive coverage it offers.

  3. How is the cost of professional indemnity insurance determined?
    The cost of professional indemnity insurance is determined by factors like the nature of your work, associated risks, the number of employees, or the desired level of coverage or sum insured.
  4. How much does professional indemnity insurance cost?
    As a ballpark figure, the premium for professional indemnity insurance typically ranges from 0.2% to 1% of the sum insured. However, the actual amount is determined by factors like the nature of your work, associated risks, the number of employees, or the desired level of coverage or sum insured.
  5. How long does professional indemnity insurance last?
    The duration of professional indemnity insurance is one year, and timely renewal is necessary to avoid any lapses and maintain uninterrupted coverage.
  6. What does professional indemnity insurance cover?
    Professional indemnity insurance provides coverage against risks such as incorrect medicine dosage, surgery-related procedures, negligent misdiagnosis, and improper courses of treatment. However, it does not extend to cover medical treatments for weight loss, plastic surgery, genetic damages, criminal activities, willful neglect, or medical practices conducted under the influence of alcohol, etc.